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Victoria Falls

Our understanding of the geology of Victoria Falls and surroundings is underpinned by the meticulous studies and exceptional field observational skills of a remarkable group of geologists. Initial geological field investigations were carried out by AJC Molyneux and GW Lamplugh in the early 1900’s. HB Maufe (in 1938) made exceptionally detailed descriptions and prescient interpretations of the Kalahari beds exposed in railway cuttings just south of Victoria Falls Station. Seventy-five years later, these are arguably still the best available records of these enigmatic sediments.

Fumure Circular Feature

A 1.2km diameter circular structure was visited by the Geological Society in Ocotber 2008 to look for evidence of a meteorite impact.

No conclusive evidence was found.

See the attached document with photos of the various features of the structure.  Despite the confident tone of this document, this structure has not been confirmed as an impact site.



Makuti Group paragneisses

Makuti Group paragneisses, exposed within the Zambezi Escarpment.
Exposures of paragneisses of the Neoproterozoic Makuti Group which are flat-lying, but highly deformed and metamorphosed. Good examples of boudinage can be seen in quartzo-feldspathic psammitic bends intercalated with politic and semi-pelitic schists. Brecciated dolomitic marbles can be seen close to the escarpment fault. Munyanyiwa et al.


The Chinamora Igneous Complex, some 1 500 sq km in extent, is an area of granitoid rocks north of Harare which is almost completely enveloped by ancient volcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Harare-Shamva Greenstone Belt.  The clear distinction between these two terrains, as one drives north towards Domboshawa, is a change from heavy red-brown loams to pale yellow-grey sandy soils.  The plutonic complex is roughly elliptical in shape and it comprises a variety of gneisses, migmatites and granites of different age and composition.

Kaburi anticlinal fold structure

Makuti Group quartzo-feldspathic gneiss.
The Kaburi anticlinal fold structure with axis parallel to the NW regional trend, which can be traced over many tens of kilometres.  The strongly deformed alternating lithologies comprising feldspathic gneiss, biotite gneiss, pelitic schist, quartzite, calc silicate rock and amphibolite are sometimes thrown into refolded interference patterns.
Stop 5 on the attached field guide

Malaputese Group at Gwayi River Mine (dumps around the Adder adit).

The Gwayi River Mine (formerly Gwaai River Mine) was operated by Messina (Transvaal) Development Corporation from 1970 until 1975, when the mine was closed for economic reasons. The mines have been dormant ever since, but since 2010, a Chinese company, Sino-Mining, has been doing exploration in the area.

Charleswood Diamonds

Following discovery of alluvial gold at Tarka Forest in 2004 and subsequent acquisition of a Special Grant over the area by the Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation, a lot of interest was roused on the gold potential of the Chimanimani area. This resulted in DTZ-Ozgeo, a company specialised in alluvial minerals, securing a Special Grant (SG 4955) in 2007 to explore for gold in an area encompassing Charleswood Farm adjacent to Tarka Forest, about 15 km east of Chimanimani.